Using RFID in Libraries: Automatic Traffic Management, Security, Tracking and …

first Introduction

RFID stands for radio frequency identification. This is a technology that allows tracking and communication of an item such as a directory book with radio waves. This technology is similar to the concept of a mobile phone.

Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is a broad term for technologies that use radio waves to automatically identify people or objects. There are many methods of identification, but the most common serial number that identifies a person or object and possibly other information on a microchip connected to an antenna (the chip and the antenna together are an RFID transponder or RFID tag). The antenna allows the chip to pass the identifying information to a reader. The reader converts radio waves reflecting from the RFID tag to digital information that can be passed on to computers that can utilize this.

2nd RFID Directory Books

RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) is the state of the art technology for bookkeeping operations and theft detection systems. RFID-based systems go beyond security to become tracking systems that combine security by tracking more efficient materials throughout the library, including easier and faster uploading and discharging, inventory and material handling

. This technology helps librarians reduce valuable time by barcode scanning during verified and controlled items

RFID is a combination of radio frequency technology and microchip technology. The information on the microchips can be read on radio-frequency technology in library-tagged labels, regardless of the orientation or alignment of the batch (ie, technology does not require a viewing distance or a fixed plane for reading labels like conventional theft detection systems). RFID gates at the exit points of the library may be as wide as four feet, because the labels are read only two feet away from two parallel output gate sensors.

2.1 RFID System Elements [19659002] The comprehensive RFID system has four components:

(1) RFID tags that are electronically programmed with unique information;

(2) Readers or sensors for querying labels;

(3) Antenna; and

(4) Server on which the software connected with the integrated library software is loaded.


The heart of the system is an RFID tag that can be attached to the back of the book or directly to a CD and video. This label is equipped with a programmable chip and antenna. Each paper-thin label has an engraved antenna and a microchip of at least 64 bits. There are three types of labels: "read only", "WORM" and "read / write".

"Labels are read only when the ID is encoded at the time of manufacture and can not be rewritten." Write-Once-Read-Many "tags are programmed by the user organization but can not be re-writed.

"Read / write tags" selected by most directories In the RFID directory, it is common for some of the read / write tag to be rewritten, for example, the battery identification number.

2.1.2 Readers

Reader creates an antenna to create a RF field When a tag passes through the field, the information stored on the chip on the label is read by the reader and sent to the server, which in turn communicates with the integrated library system , when the RFID system is connected to it.

RFID exit gate sensors (readers) on the outputs are essentially of two types: one type the tag and transmits this information to the server. After checking the traffic database, the server turns on the alarm if the material is not properly selected. Another type relies on a "theft" byte on the label that is turned on or off to show whether the battery is loaded or not.

The readers of the RFID library are used in the following ways:

Conversion Station – where library data is written on the label

Workstation workstation on the move – Used

The standalone checkpoint that provides library materials to staff use it to check out its help;

The self-control station that books, etc. require personal assistance;

Exit Sensors – to check whether all books leaving the library have been verified

Book Reader – Used to automatically scan library materials and re-activate security

A sort and conveyor automated system for returning books,

Handheld reader for bookkeeping and checking, etc. is correctly shelved.

2.1.3 Antenna

Antenna is generated by radio signals to activate and read the tag and write data. Antennas are the channels between the label and the reader that control the data and communication of the system. The electromagnetic field produced by the antenna can be continuously present if several members are constantly waiting. The antennas can be inserted into a door frame to get the tag information from people passing through the door.

2.1.4 Server

The server is at the heart of some of the comprehensive RFID systems. This is the communication gateway between the various components. Information is received from one or more readers and exchanges information from the traffic. Software includes SIP / SIP2 (Session Initiation Protocol), API (Application Programming Interface) NCIP or SLNP required interface for integrated library software. Typically, the server contains a transaction database so that reports can be generated

2.2 Optional Components

The optional RFID system contains the following three components:

1. RFID Tag Printer

2. Manual Reader

3. External book reimbursement

1. RFID Label Printer

RFID Printer Labels are unique bar code, library logos, and so on. It is printed. During printing, you programmed the data to the chip at the same time. After the process, the RFID tag was taken from the printer and inscribed on the book. It also checks each RFID tag for the function

. Manual reader / inventory stick

Portable handheld reader or inventory stick can be moved along objects on shelves without touching it. The data is transferred to a storage unit that can be downloaded later on a server or to a unit that transmits it to the server using wireless technology. The inventory will include three requirements:

· Use the entire collection of books on shelves to check inventory control.

· Search for books that are blocked.

· Custom Book Search

] You can write other applications to the inventory because the system uses a Personal Data Transfer Terminal (PDT).

3rd External Accounting Revenue

Libraries offer special services that are very useful to users, such as the ability to retrieve hours. External Posting Feedback is a machine with integrated chip RFID reader. It works just like your Self Check Out Station. The user identifies himself (if necessary in the library) and places the book in the slot. Upon returning, the user receives the acknowledgment of receipt, showing how many and which books have been returned. As they are already logged in, they can return directly to the shelves. These units can be used with serial and transport systems

3. The most important features of RFID in the library

The reliability, ease of handling and flexibility of all types of media labeling are an important criterion in the choice of the RFID system. The main purpose of today's libraries to accept RFID is to increase efficiency and reduce costs. Automation and self-service can help reach these goals for libraries of all sizes, and RFID has the added benefit of providing security for the various media available in libraries. Technology can also improve traffic and inventory control, helping to optimize workforce and financial resource allocation. This means that libraries can release their specialists for routine work and operational tasks.

All tags used in RFID technology are "passive" for libraries. The readability of labels is derived from the reader or exit sensor (reader) rather than the battery on the label.

Some libraries use a "smart" card that uses an additional encrypted RFID card to add only one RFID tag to the staff and user ID cards. It not only identifies users for issuing and retrieving library materials, but also for accessing restricted areas or services. This would make it possible to convert it into a "deposit" card, adding added value to the library prepayment and the value to be deducted when the user used a photocopier, printer or other fee-based device or a fine

3.1 Fast and easy user self-discharge / discharge

Using RFID reduces the time needed to perform circulatory operations. This technology helps librarians eliminate timely staff when scanning barcodes while controlling and checking leased items. RFID users speed up rental and refund procedures for users. Library specialists, instead of scanning barcodes all day long before users' rollouts, are making more productive and interesting tasks. Personnel are further facilitated when readers are installed in booklets.

3.2 Reliability

Readers are extremely reliable. Many RFID libraries require almost 100 percent detection frequency using RFID tags

Some RFIDs have an interface between exit sensors and circulatory software to identify elements leaving the library. If the library user has run out of the library and does not log in, the library will at least know what he is stolen. If the user card has an RFID tag, the library will also be able to determine who has removed the batteries without properly loading them.

Other RFID systems encode traffic status on the RFID tag. This is done by marking it as a bit "steal" bit and disabling it at the time of charging and at the time of discharge. If the improperly charged material was taken away from the exit gate sensors, an immediate alarm was triggered. Another option is to use the "stealing" bit and the online interface in an integrated library system to signal the first instant alert, and the second to identify the extra data.

3.3 High-speed Inventory

RFID systems have the unique advantage of being able to illuminate books on shelves without overturning or removing them. A handheld reader can quickly move through the bookshelves to read all unique identifying information. Thanks to wireless technology, not only updating the kit, but also identifying items that are not in the correct order.

3.4 Automated Material Management

Another application of RFID technology is automated material handling. This includes transport equipment and sorting systems that can move library materials and sort them into a separate basket or separate basket by category. This reduces considerably the amount of personal time required for the readiness of recyclable materials

3.5 Tag life

RFID tags are longer than barcodes because technology does not require visibility. Most RFID manufacturers require at least 100,000 transactions before the label has to be replaced.

4th RFID Systems Demerits

4.1 High Costs

The main disadvantage of RFID technology is cost. While readers and gate sensors used to read information, they typically ranged between $ 1500 and $ 2500; and the tags are between $ .40 and $ .75.

4.2 Compromise Access

The RFID system can be compromised by wrapping the protected material in two or three layers of standard household foil to prevent the radio signal. The RFID system may also be jeopardized by placing two elements next to each other so that a label overlaps another. This can interrupt the signals. This necessitates knowledge and careful coordination of technology.

4.3 Removing Exposed Labels

RFID tags are usually attached to the back cover and are subject to removal. This means there may be problems when users are more familiar with the role of tags. In Indian libraries, this is a great challenge to keep the labels intact.

4.4 Exit from the Reader Problems

While short-range readers for marketing and inventory read 100 percent of the tags are time-consuming, the output of the exit gate sensors is much more problematic. You have never read the tags until the other readers reach twice. There is no directory that has determined the loss rate before and after the inventory when RFID is used for security.

4.5 Disabling User Encryption

Data privacy concerns about element-level labeling are another major obstacle to library use by RFID tags. The problem with today's library RFID system is that labels contain static information that is readily read by unauthorized label readers. This allows data protection issues like & # 147; tracking & # 148; and "Hot List".

Tracking is the ability to track the movement of the book (or the person carrying the book) in the "book barcode" and # 148; or RFID tags. The term "Hotlisting" means the process of building up the books database and associated tags (hot lists) and then using an unauthorized reader to determine who controls the items in the bullet list.

4.6 Reader crash

RFID is a signal sent by one reader that may interfere with the signal from the other, where the coverage overlays. This is called reading collision. One way to avoid this problem is time division multiple access (TDMA). Simply put, readers are instructed to read at different times and not try to read them at the same time. This ensures that they do not interfere with each other. But this means that any RFID tag with two readers overlapping is read twice.

4.7 Tag conflict

Another problem reader reads many chips in the same area. Tag collision occurs when more than one chip echoes the signal simultaneously, embarrassing the reader. Different manufacturers have developed different systems that allow labels to respond individually to the reader. As read in milliseconds, it appears that all tags are read at one time.

4.8 Lack of standard

Labels used by library RFID manufacturers are not compatible even if they meet the same standards, standards only address electronic compatibility between labels and readers. The pattern of coding information and the information processing software are different from the vendor to the seller so changing from one supplier system to another requires repacking of each item or modifying the software. Guidelines for Best Practices for Libraries

As libraries apply RFID systems, it is important to develop best practice guidelines to better exploit technology and address privacy concerns. Libraries should be the best policy for RFID use:

· The library should be open to the use of RFID technology, including disclosure of publicly available documents, the use of RFID, the use targets and related policies and procedures, and who to contact for questions.

· Signals must be inserted in each facility using RFID. Signs should inform the public of the use of RFID technology, the types of uses and the privacy statement, and whether this technology differs from other information gathering methods.

· Only authorized personnel should have access to the RFID system.

· No personal data should be stored on the RFID labels

· The descriptive data on the labeled element must be encrypted even if the data is limited to

· No static information on the label (barcode, manufacturer

· All communications between the label and the reader must be encrypted using a unique encryption key

· All RFID readers in the directory must be clear

· ISO 1869 mode-2 labels should be used instead of ISO 15693.

6th Installations

While warehouses and retail outlets have over 500,000 RFIDs installed worldwide, RFID systems are still relatively new in libraries. Less than 150 were installed since 2004.

Most installations are small, mainly at branch offices. The Connecticut University Library; The Nevada University / Las Vegas Library, the Vienna Public Library in Austria, the Leuven Catholic University and the National University of Singapore are the only venue that seems to be over 500,000.

So far, only two university libraries have installed RFID in India. First, the Jayakar Library of Pune University, the second is the Dhanvantri Library of Jammu University. Use of RFID in Indian libraries lasts for at least four to five years.

7th Latest developments

Recent developments in hardware and software for RFID systems have increased the potential of technology in library automation and security. "One of the most important achievements for libraries is the use of unprotected systems as the new generation of RFID chips can be integrated with ISO 15693 (integrated into ISO 18000-3)," explains Dr. Christian Kern, Libretto RFID Librarian System Development Manager , a Swiss company specializing in such a system of libraries. "With this technology, libraries do not need to make labels dependent on a single supplier. Because libraries are investing a long-term investment, which consists primarily of the amount of labels needed, this is a very important requirement."

8. Suppliers

The six manufacturers of library RFID systems are available in India by Business Partners: Bibliotheca, Checkpoint, ID Systems, 3M, X-ident Technology GmbH, Infotek Software and Systems, India and TAGSYS & # 151; the latter being represented by Tech Logic, Vernon, India's Libsys and VTLS.

Many other companies also manufacture products that work with RFID, including user refueling stations and material handling equipment. it is clear from the foregoing that an RFID system is a comprehensive system that addresses both the security and material tracking needs of a library. RFID in the library does not pose a threat if the best practice guidelines follow religiously to speed up accounting and inventory and release staff to provide more user services. Technology saves money and provides quick return on investment.

With regard to data protection issues, it is important for library staff and library users to educate the RFID technology used in libraries before implementing the program. so that librarians can wait and see RFID developments for a while before the cost of labels is reduced to $ 20 or less, the number that librarians have determined is key to the serious concerns of using technology. [19659002] While library RFID systems are very similar to each other, including high frequency (13.56 MHz) passive, read-write labels. The lack of standard and compatibility of labels produced by different manufacturers is a serious problem in implementing RFID libraries. Current Standards (ISO 15693) apply to container-level labeling in the supply chain and do not address the problems of tracking and hot listing. Next Generation Labels (ISO 18000) are designed for element-level labeling. Newer tags are able to solve privacy issues for today's labels. However, with the use of this new standard, library RFID products are not currently available. In addition to the cost of RFID tags and equipment, libraries also have a serious problem of doing the same thing in a developing country like India.


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