History of Educational Technology

There is no written evidence that can tell exactly who created the term of education technology. Different instructors, scholars and philosophers have presented various definitions of Education Technology at different time intervals. Education Technology is a versatile and integrated process that involves people, the process, ideas, tools and organizations where technology from different disciplines has borrowed to meet the needs and the needs of education to implement, evaluate and manage such problems solutions.

Educational technology is associated primarily with the use of aids such as, for example, maps, maps, symbols, models, samples and concrete materials. The notion of educational technology was used as synonym for audiovisual aids.

The second phase of education technology is related to the electronic revolution by introducing and creating sophisticated hardware and software. Various audiovisual devices, such as projectors, magical lights, tape recorders, radio and television, have revolutionized the educational scenario. Accordingly, the concept of education technology for sophisticated tools and equipment for the effective presentation of such educational materials

The third phase of education technology is related to the development of mass media, which is intended for educational communication purposes. Computer teaching taught in the 1950s (CAI) has also become popular in this era.

The fourth stage of education technology is the individually tailored teaching process. The invention of programmed learning and programmed education has given a new dimension to education technology. Self-study was built on its own educational materials and teaching tools.

The most recent concept of education technology is influenced by the concept of system design or system approach, which is the use of language labs, tutorials, programmed education, multimedia technologies, and computer use in education. Accordingly, education technology is the design, implementation and evaluation of the entire process of research and learning, a systematic way of achieving specific objectives based on research.

Educational Technology in the Stone Age, Bronze Age, and Iron Age

Education technology, in spite of the uncertainty of the origin of the term, can be traced back to the age of three years of human ancient history; ie the Stone Age, the Bronze Age and the Iron Age. In the Stone Age fire ignition, igniting various hand-made weapons and tools from stone and clothing was one of the most important simple technological developments. Part of the stone-built people have developed ocean-worthy canoeing techniques to copy from one place to another through the ocean, with which they developed their first informal education on ocean currents, weather conditions, sailing, astronavigation and star charts. In the later Stone Age period (Neolithic period), agricultural tools were polished stone tools from various hard rocks, largely by digging underground tunnels, which can be considered as the first steps of mining technology. The polished shafts were so effective that even after the appearance of bronze and iron; people used for forest cleaning and crop production

Although the Stone Age cultures did not write the written records, but archaeological evidence has proved that they shifted from nomadic life to the farm. Various museums and cave paintings such as the Altamira cave in Spain and other prehistoric arts, such as the Venus Willendorf, Goddess goddess Laussel, etc., Various museums and cave drawings such as the Cave of the Lower Cave, The Stone Age Revolution resulted in bronze appearance agriculture, domestication of animals and adoption of permanent settlements. For these exercises, people in the Bronze Age further developed the metal alloy with copper and later selected bronze, tin and copper alloys.

Bronze people have swapped and developed the knowledge of iron-melting technology at lower cost of living because the hardware is stronger and cheaper than the bronze equivalent. In a number of Eurasian cultures, Iron Age was the last time before writing script scenarios. Paul Saettler, 2004, Educational technology can be traced back to the time when tribal priests systematized the body of knowledge and ancient cultures, found pictograms or signed writing for capturing and transmitting information.

At every stage of human civilization, there is a series of teaching techniques or procedures aimed at the realization of a particular culture and supported by the number of investigations and evidence. The more advanced the culture, the more complicated the technology of education is to reflect certain forms of individual and social behavior. Throughout the centuries, all major changes in educational values, goals or objectives have led to different educational technologies.

The greatest advances in technology and technology come from the rise of ancient civilizations. These advancements have encouraged and introduced the world of the world to adopt new lifestyles and governance.

The Indus Valley civilization was an early Bronze Age civilization located in the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent. The civilization mainly flourished around the Indus River basin and the valley of the Ghaggar-Hakra River and the Ganges-Yamuna Doabig (most of it is today in Pakistan and in the western states of today) flourished around the Punjab. India, as well as a part of civilization extending to Southeast Afghanistan and Balochistan, Iran's easternmost part.)

There is a long-standing debate about what language the Barkapians are talking about. They assume that their writing is at least a pictogram or a pictogram. The scenario seems to contain about 400 setpoints in many versions. People in the script are usually written to the right and to the left. Most of the writing was on seals and closures, which were probably used for commercial and official and administrative work.

The Harappan people knew length, mass and time gauges. They were the first in the world to develop a system of uniform weights and measures

P. N. Rao et al. In science, published in 2009, computer scientists find that the Indus script pattern is closer to spoken words, which supported the hypothesis that it encodes in an unknown language.

According to Chinese civilization, some of the Chinese techno offers include paper, early seismologic detectors, toilet paper, matches, ironworkers, multi-tube drills, suspension bridges, wheelbarrows, parachutes, natural gas as fuel, magnetic compass convex map, blast furnace, propeller, left hand, south wagon, and gun dust. By inventing the paper, the first steps towards the development of educational technology were made, as various manual finished products were bred as visual aids.

An ancient Egyptian language is one of the longest surviving and used languages ​​at one point. Their scripts have been compiled from images such as birds, animals, various devices, and so on. These images are popularly called hieroglyphs. Their language consisted of more than 500 hieroglyphs known as hieroglyphics. The monuments or graves that have been discovered and rescued in the past in ancient Egypt show the existence of many forms of artistic hieroglyphs.

Educational Technology in the Middle Ages and the Modern Age

Paper and paper pulp manufacturing process developed in China at the beginning of the 2nd century BC was transported to the Middle East and Muslim conquests spread to the Mediterranean. It supports the support that was established in Sicily in the 12th century. The discovery of the rotating wheel greatly increased the productivity of thread cutting, and when Lynn White increased the spinning wheel by increasing the amount of rags, this led to the production of cheap paper, which is a major factor in the development of printing technology.

Press production was carried out in around 1450 by Johannes Gutenburg, a German inventor. The printing press was an expression of one of the most important development factors in the history of education technology, which conveys the needs of a complex and advanced technology society to education.

In the industry, in the pre-industrial stages, on a craft level, the educational processes were heavily relied on simple things like slate, horn book, chalkboard, and chalk. It was restricted to a single textbook with some illustrations. Educational technology was seen as a symbol for simple tools such as graphs and images.

1873 is a milestone in the early history of education technology or audiovisual education. An international exhibition in Vienna was organized in Vienna, where an American school was awarded the admiration of the trainers for the exhibition of maps, maps, textbooks and other equipment.

Mary Montessori (1870-1952), an internationally renowned child instructor and the initiator of Montessori Method, dynamically influenced educational technology through the development of classified materials designed to ensure proper sequencing of objects for each student. Modern educational technology suggests a lot of Montessori's thinking about a thought-provoking child-centered environment. [18] In 1963, Charles Babbage founded a modern computer for designing a general purpose computer tool, and in 1943, the first computer machine was set up by International Business Machines Corporation in the USA. The computer-aided instruction (CAI), in which the computer is basically an instructor, and the Talking Type writer are called O.K. Moore in 1966. Since 1974 computers are used in interesting ways in schools, colleges and universities.

At the beginning of the 19th century, remarkable changes have taken place in the field of education. The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), from the start of school broadcasting in the 1920s, has been keeping pace with the appropriate contribution to formal education. In the United States, in 1952, 20 states had educational mediation. At the same time, 98% of UK-based schools were radio and regular daily programs were organized.

Sidney L. Pressey, a psychologist from the State University of Ohio, developed a self-taught drum tutor called "Drum Tutor" in 1920. However, Professor Skinner called for the use of knowledge from behavioral psychology in his famous article "Science and Art of Teaching" published in 1945 in classroom procedures and suggested automated teaching materials for this. [19659002] Although the first practical use of regular television shows was in Germany in 1929 and the Berlin Olympics in Berlin in 1936, the Open Circuit television was launched in 1950 primarily for the broadcast of entertainment programs. In 1960, television was used for educational purposes. [19] In 1950 Brynmor first used educational technology steps in England. It must be ensured that in 1960 in America and Russia, as a result of the Industrial Revolution, other countries have begun to move in the field of education technology. Thus, education technology began in 1960 from America and Russia and now comes to England, Europe and India

During the 1950s, the new technocracy attracted educated teachers to a steep shortage of teachers in America, and therefore an urgent need for education technology. Dr. Alvin C. Eurich and a little later, Dr. Alexander J. Stoddard, introduced mass production technology in America.

In 1956, Benjamin Bloom (USA) introduced the taxonomy of educational objectives: "The organization of educational goals, the development of educational goals, Educational Goal Classification, Handbook I: Cognitive Areas "

In 1961, Micro Teaching Techniques were first adopted by Dwight W. Allen and colleagues at Stanford University in the USA.

Electronics is the main technology developed at the beginning of the 21st century. Broadband Internet access has become popular in almost every important office and educational venue, and even close-ups in developed countries, with the aim of connecting your home computers with music libraries and mobile phones.

Today's classroom is more likely to be a technology lab, students who use laptops, palmtops, notepad, or even students using Internet or Wi-Fi, in videoconferencing or virtual classrooms, listening to performances, or video presentations. Rapid technological change in the field of education has created new ways of teaching and learning. Technology changes have also encouraged teachers to access different information over the Internet globally, to develop their lessons and to become competent professionals in their area of ​​concern. At the same time, students can use the vast resources of the Internet to enrich their learning experiences to cope with the changing tendency of society. Nowadays, students and teachers organize seminars, conferences and workshops at national and international level using multimedia techno resources, such as PowerPoint, and choose the different modes through online learning methods. Online Learning Opportunities offers many opportunities for today's learners to make life happier than ever.

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