The history of electronic music has for decades preceded the rock and roll era. Most of them were not even on this planet when they started the often obscure, undervalued and misunderstood development. Today, this "other secular" tone, which began nearly a century ago, no longer seems strange and unique, as most of the new generations have been accepted as the mainstream, but it was a shocking journey and acceptance by the public.
Many musicians – modern supporters of electronic music – developed a passion for analogue synthesizers in the late 1970s and early 1980s, such as Gary Numan's breakthrough, "Are Friends Electric?" In this era, these devices are smaller, more accessible, user-friendly and more affordable. In this article, I try to reveal this story in easily digestible chapters and show examples of today's best modern supporters.
I think it was the beginning of a new era. In order to create electronic music, it was no longer necessary to use the studio or live technology. Until now, this was only the area of artists who liked Kraftwerk, whose arsenal of electronic instruments and custom-designed gadgets dreamed of ours, even if we understood the logistics of their operation. That said, when I grew up in the 60s and 70s, I still had not enough knowledge of how normal the work was in previous decades to arrive at this point.
The Story of Electronic Music for Many by Karlheinz Stockhausen (1928-2007). Stockhausen was a German composer Avante Garde and, since the 1950s, a pioneer in electronic music, which influenced the movement, which could ultimately have a strong effect on names such as Kraftwerk, Tangerine Dream, Brain Eno, Cabaret Voltaire , Depeche Mode. the experimental work of Beatles and others in the 1960s. His face is on the cover of "Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band", the master of the Beatles 1967 Opus.
The turn of the 20th century
Time still stood in this stargazer when I originally realized that the first documented, exclusively electronic, The concerts were not in the 1970s or 1980s were in the 1920s!
The first purely electronic device, Theremin, is played without touch, the Russian scientist and cello, Lev Termen (1896-1993), invented around 1919.
Theremin made his debut with the Leningrad Philharmonic in 1924. The interest in therapy has attracted the audience to concerts in Europe and Great Britain. In 1930, in New York's prestigious Carnegie Hall, classical music was performed, with only ten theremins. Some trained musicians watched who played the eerie sounding device by waving around their antennas, so exciting, surreal and alien to the technological audience!
For those interested, see the recordings of Theremin virtuoso Clara Rockmore (1911-1998). Lithuanian-born Rockmore (Reisenberg) worked with the inventor of New York to improve the instrument in the early years and became the best-known, brilliant and acclaimed artist and representative of his life.
In retrospect, Clara was the first celebrated star of "true electronic music. It is unlikely that you will find more classic but beautiful performances on Theremin.
Electronic Music in Sci-Fi, Cinema and Television
Unfortunately, and due to difficulties in acquiring skills, the future of Theremin as a musical instrument was short-lived. Finally, he found a gap in his 1950s Sci-Fi films. The 1951 classic "The The The Earth Stood Still" movie, influential American film composer Bernard Hermann (Alfred Hitchcock "Psycho", etc.) with his music-rich "extraterrestrial" score, two Theremins and others
A Theremin, French cello and radio telegraphist Maurice Martenot (1898-1980) vacuum tube oscillator technology began to develop Ondes Martenot (in French, called Martenot wave)
Using a standard and familiar keyboard that a musician easier to learn, Martenot's instrument was successful, where Theremin failed to be user-friendly. In fact, it has become the first successful electronic instrument to be used by composers and bands to date
On this topic, he appeared in the first 1960s Star Trek TV series and heard
Expressive multi-timbral Ondes Marten, despite being a monophony, is the closest tool of his generation that I have heard, which approaches the sound of modern synthesis.
"Forbidden Planet" was released in 1956, the first major commercial studio movie featuring only electronic audio tracks … with the introduction of Robbie the Robot and the impressive Anne Francis! The pioneer score was produced by Louis and Bebe Barron's husband and wife team, who created the first private studio in the US in the late 1940s to record electronic experimental artists such as the iconic John Cage (whose own Avante Garde's work questioned ) the definition of music!).
Barrons generally recognize the use of electronic music in the cinema. On the one hand, a soldering iron, Louis, built the circuit that was manipulated to create a variety of bizarre, "apparent" effects and motifs for the film. Once completed, these sounds could not be replicated because the circuit deliberately overloads, smokes, and burns to produce the desired sound output
. then re-manipulated them with delay and echo, and renamed the end product creatively with multiple tape packages.
In addition to this labor-intensive working method, I would have to include what is arguably the most persistent and influential electronic television. signature ever: the theme of the long running 1963 British Sci-Fi Adventure series, "Dr. Who". This was the first time the television series had only presented an electronic theme. The "Dr. Who" theme was created in the legendary BBC Radiophonic Workshop using ribbons and test oscillators to penetrate effects, capture them on tape, and then recycled and edited another Electro pioneer, Delia Derbyshire.
As you can see, the most widespread use of electronic music in vintage Sci-Fi was the public's view of this music as "other secular" and "foreign-bizarre". It remained until at least 1968 when the album "Switched-On Bach" was released entirely by Moog's modular synthesizer by Walter Carlos, who became Wendy Carlos with some surgical hips and knives.  The expanded electronic music profile of the 1970s with the breakthrough of bands like Kraftwerk and Tangerine Dream, and especially in the 1980s, when he found several mainstream approvals.
Mid-1900s: Musique Concrete
During the 1900s, electronic music was not limited to electronic circuits to sound. In the 1940s, a relatively new German invention – a reel-reel tape recorder developed in the 1930s – was subject to the interest of many Avante Garde European composers, especially French radio broadcasting and composer Pierre Schaeffer (1910). -1995) who developed a montage technique called Musique Concrete.
Musique concrete (that is, "real world" sound against artificial or acoustic sounds produced by musical instruments) was largely a combination of fixed tape segments. found "sounds – natural, environmental, industrial and human – and manipulating them with effects such as accelerating or slowing down delays, reversal, distortion, bandwidth (varispeed), speed, etc.
Stockhausen actually held concerts on Musique concrete as a back cover (in this section, electronic and “real world” sounds were used in the recordings) on which the live instruments are played by the classical players who responded to the mood and motifs of the student
to Musique Beton not only to Avante Garde but to the 1960s. Important works for Beatles to use this method on pioneering tracks such as "Tomorrow Never Knows", "Revolution No. 9" and "Exploiting Kite", t as well as Pink Floyd albums "Umma Gumma", "The Dark Side of the Moon" and Frank Zappa "Lumpy Gravy".
Today it can be done with simplification, digital sampling, but yesterday's heroes have been working hours, days and even weeks to spend four minutes! For those of us who are contemporary musicians, understanding the history of electronic music will help you recognize the recent quantum leap. But these early innovators, these pioneers – many of which are in the line – and the important shapes we are influenced have created the revolutionary foundations that have become our electronic musical heritage today, and I respect them! 19659002] 1950s: The First Computer and Synth Play Music
A few years to 1957 and into the first computer into the electronic mix. As you can imagine, it was not a portable portable device, but consumed a whole room, and the user-friendly is not a concept. Nonetheless, creative people continued to put pressure on borders. One of these is Max Mathews (1926 -), Bell Telephone Laboratories in New Jersey, who developed Music 1, the original music program for computers, based on the roots of all subsequent digital synthesis. Mathews, the father of "Computer Music", using the digital IBM Mainframe, was the first to synthesize music on the computer.
Stanley Kubrik 1968 & # 39; 2001: At the Highlight of Space Odyssey & # 39; The 1961 Mathews electronic edition at the end of the 1800s was a song by Daisy Bell, where the musical experiment is carried out by the programmed mainframe with the computer synthesized human singing method that was pioneered in the early 60s. the HAL is regressing the computer, "returning to this song, respecting its" own origins "
was the first advanced synthesizer, RCA Mk II Sound Synthesizer (Improvement in 1955). This huge RCA Synth has been installed and will continue to be in the New York Columbia-Princeton Electronic Music Center, where the legendary R obert Moog has been working for a while, universities and technology laboratories as the main home for early and early music synthesis.
1960s: Early Dawn of Moog
The logistic and complexity of composing led to the musician's unfriendly synthesizers requiring more portable playable devices. One of the first answers, and certainly the most successful, was Robert Moog (1934-2005). Playable synthesizer uses the familiar piano-style keyboard.
The modular synthesizer type of the Moog High Capacity Phone Module could not be transported and set up with any ease or speed! The popularity of his popularity was due to Walter Carlos's success, as mentioned earlier in 1968. The best seller of LP (Long Player), "Switched-On Bach", was the best because the album was first released
The album was a complex classical music performance with several different songs and overdubs, because the synthesizer was only monophonic! Carlos also created an electronic score for "The Clockwork Orange", a disturbing 1972 futuristic film by Stanley Kubrik.
From this point on, the Moog synthesizer has spread to many contemporary albums of the 1960s. In 1967, Monkees & # 39; "Fish, Aquarius, Capricorn & Jones Ltd" became the first commercial pop album featuring modular Moog. Mickey Dolenz singer / drummer actually bought one of the first sold items.
Until the early 1970s, however, the first minimoog seemed to be a serious concern for musicians. This portable low-fat unit has had a significant impact on live music sets for many tourist musicians in the coming years. Other companies, such as sequential circuits, Roland and Korg, have started to produce their own synthesizers, and have created a musical subculture.
I can't close the 1960s chapter without referring to Mellotron. This electronic-mechanical device is often seen as a primitive forerunner of a modern digital sampler.
Developed in the early 1960s and based on Chamberlin (a cumbersome device designed by the US from the previous decade), the Mellotron keyboard has previously been launched. fixed tapes, each key that corresponds to the correct note and pitch of the pre-loaded acoustic instrument
The Mellotron is legendary on the Beatles' 1966 "Strawberry Fields Forever". Paul McCartney's spooky introduction uses flute levels.
The popularity of the instrument was overturned and used to record many times, such as the highly successful Moody Blues epic "Nights in White Satin". In the 1970s, progressive rock bands became more and more accepted. Electronic Pioneers The Tangerine Dream featured in their early albums
With time and further developments in microchip technology, this charming instrument has become a memory of the era.
1970s: The Birth of Vintage Electronic Bands
Early Liquid Albums of Tangerine Dream, such as "Phaedra" from 1974, and "Ambient Music" by Brian Eno independently David Bowie's "Heroes" album, both musicians and
Kraftwerk, whose album album "Albobahn" in 1974 achieved international trade success, made the media even more accurate, with electronic beats and rhythms, and almost high synthetic melodies. Their minimalism suggested a cold, industrial and computerized urban world. They often used voice codes and speech synthesis tools, such as the beautifully speaking Speak and Spell, and the latter as a child learning aid
. successfully combines all the elements of electronically generated music and noise and makes easily recognizable song formats. Adding the vocals in many songs, both in their mother tongue and in English, has helped to gain universal recognition as one of the most influential contemporary pioneers and performers of contemporary music of the last half century.
Kraftwerk 1978 gem & # 39; Das In February 1982, the Model found the English version of The Model, which is one of the earliest Electro chart toppers
. EM (Electronic Music) to facilitate wider acceptance. In the mid-1970s, the punk movement, especially in Britain, brought a unique new attitude: one that preferred self-expression rather than performance-skill and formal training, as did contemporary progressive rock musicians. They epitomized. The initial aggression of the metallic punk became less abrasive at the end of the 1970s: New Wave. This, coupled with the comparative affordability of small, easy-to-use synthesizers, led to a commercial synthetic explosion in the early 1980s.
The new generation of young people has begun to explore the potential of these tools and has begun to challenge the recording perspective of contemporary music. However, this did not come without fighting scars. The creation of the music industry, especially in the media, has often disillusioned this new kind of expression and performance and sought to send it to the trash of history.
1980s: The First Golden Age of Electronic Music for the Masses
Gary Numan is arguably the first "Tubeway Army" of 1979, "Are Friends Electric? The Sci-Fi" Some of the pictures are made from the Science Fiction classic, "Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?" The 1982 "Blade Runner" hit the same book
Although "friends are electric?" The use of the dominant Polymoogs, with its usual drum and bass support, gave the song a very distinctive voice, the first synthetic release that reached the first British status in the UK during the post-punk years and helped in a new genre There was no more electronic and / or synthesizer music on the mainstream.
Further development of affordable electronic technologies for young creators and its transformation into professional studios
Designed in Australia in 1978, Fairlight Sampler CMI became the first commercially available polyphonic digital sampler, but its inexpensive cost was exclusively for Trevor Horn, Stevie Wonder and Peter Gabriel. Until the middle of the decade, however, smaller, less expensive devices have entered the market, such as the Akai and Emulator Samplers commonly used by musicians to replicate the sounds recorded in the studio. Sampler has revolutionized music production at this point.
In most large markets, except for the United States, in the early 1980s, it attracted electrically influenced artists. Many of us were an exciting era, I was in it myself. I know I was not alone in closing the distorted guitar and amplifiers and immersing in a new musical expression in the universe – in the world of abstract and non-traditional sound.
Home, the Australian Synthetic Real Real Real (& # 39; Send Me An Angel, "Heartland" album), Icehouse ("Hey Little Girl") and Pseudo Echo ("Funky Town") began to chart internationally Several experimental electronic equipment such as Severed Heads and SPK have developed culture overseas. 19659002] But by the middle of the decade, the first global electronic wave lost momentum because of the incredible resistance of old school music media. Most of the artists who started the decade mainly as electro-based disintegrated or were heavily hybridized with traditional rock tools. . Although the synthetic records hit the American maps, the first is the American League Top Top of 1982, "Don't You Want a Baby?" Overall, a few years before the American mainstream embraced electronic music, musicians and musicians around the world became solid. the dominant genre of the audience.
It was one of the electronic music in the USA in 1988. Often, in the press, they were desperate in their early years that Depeche Mode accidentally – and most often could not – led this new attack. In America, the cult status of a large part of the decade, a new high-quality rotation, now called the Modern Rock radio, resulted in mega stadium performances. Electro action on playing arenas was not yet common in the US!
In 1990, the New York fan pandemonium welcomed the members of the TV news and the "Violator" album, which released Madonna, and made Prince in the same year for American households.
1990s: The Second Golden Age of Electronic Music for the Masses
Before the "star music" retained the US mainstream and lost its commercial space in the mid-1980s Detroit and Chicago have become modest laboratories for the explosion of electronic music, which saw much of the 1990s.
Detroit in the 1980s, a post-Fordism American industrial wilderness, produced the tougher European impact Techno. In the early and mid-80s, Juan Atkins, an obsessive Kraftwerk fan, Derrick May and Kevin Saunderson, together with the household, were the backbone of major musical club cultures with primitive, often borrowed tools. the world. Highly cited artists, that informed early techno-development was a pioneer in Europe, such as the aforementioned Kraftwerk, as well as Yello and British Electro's Depeche Mode, Human League, Heaven 17, New Order and Cabaret Voltaire lovers  Chicago, four-hour drives, saw the development of the House at the same time. The name is usually derived from "The Warehouse", where the various DJ Producers contained a new musical amalgam. The house has its roots in the disco of the 1970s and, unlike Techno, is usually a song. I think Giorgio Moroder's work with Donna Summer in the mid-1970s, especially in the song "I Feel Love", is crucial to appreciating the 70's disco effects at Chicago House.
Many versions and subsystems have evolved since the crossing into the Atlantic Ocean, renewed and re-established, but the popular success of the two basic forms has revived the entire electronic landscape and associated social culture in many respects. The Techno and the House helped the primary challenge of mainstream and alternative rock as the preferred student choice of a new generation: a generation that grew up with electronic music and could be considered specific. For them, it was always music
The history of electronic music can still be seen as a technological development, and people's expectations of how music can move on further increase vocabulary and vocabulary.
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